Research Question 4: Significant Challenges Impeding Technology Adoption

What do you see as the key challenges related to teaching, learning, or creative inquiry that Scandinavian schools will face during the next five years?

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NOTE: For the purposes of voting, the Significant Challenges are sorted into three categories based on their scope and difficulty -- solvable challenges are those that we both understand and know how to solve, but seemingly lack the will; difficult challenges are ones that are more or less well-understood but for which solutions remain elusive; wicked challenges, the most difficult, are complex to even define, and thus require additional data and insights before solutions will even be possible. In your responses below, feel free to explore why the challenge is be solvable, difficult, or wicked.

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Challenge Name
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Balancing Our Connected and Unconnected Lives
With the abundance of content, technologies, and overall participatory options, learning institutions need to lead the way to facilitating finding a balance between connected and unconnected life. With technology now at the center of many daily activities, it is important that learners understand how to balance their connected life with other developmental needs. Educational institutions should lead the way to ensure learners do not get lost and absorbed by the abundance of information and technology, and encourage mindful use of technology so that students stay aware of their digital footprint. As education aligns closer with technological trends, teachers will have to promote this balance, encouraging students to feel, digest, reflect, touch, and pursue sensorial experiences that are crucial to developing character and integrity. Finding a balance and guiding learners to personal success should be society's compromise with new generations of digital natives. - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Nov 26, 2014 - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014 - Sam Sam Dec 3, 2014- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014
I don't subscribe to the "Digital Native" narrative (see White and Cornu 2011), if it was true, educational institutions wouldn't have to engage with this challenge, but they do. - sara.mortsell sara.mortsell Dec 6, 2014
In the Norwegian Monitor 2013 (Monitor 2013) it is shown that high achieving students also has higher achievements with digital resources. [[user:jostein.kvisteroy|1417959848]- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014
Being a digital native merely means using technology in everyday life. however, it does not mean mastering digital. We see many examples of students being rather inadequate in using digital tool beyond the very basic use. This needs to be taught along with other skills in education. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014 Of course. A challenge for the education system is when teachers subscribe to the Digital Native Narrative, and are convinced that the younger generation learn about technology effortlessly, analogous to how they learn their native language. In this narrative, adults are not accountable for how young people develop their connected lives, neither are they accountable for their own lack of knowledge or lack of connected life, since they are "digital immigrants". - sara.mortsell sara.mortsell Dec 7, 2014 The first digital generation was born around 1995, and their view of life is that the social world is not only physical but also digital. They have consistently smartphone in your pocket, on silent but with the vibrator on. They are simply forced to act if they are approached, it feels churlish not to react if there comes a text message. I've filmed students from some classes to follow their use of the smartphone, and it clearly shows that they are affected by the smartphone. One can see that they follow the part of the teaching, but the question is are they attend to the lection when it is important to them, or when there comes no text to be answered. Think unfortunately the last. Schools need to pay more attention to this problem and find a balance between when it's ok to use the smartphone and when it is not ok. I strongly believe that it is part of the learning process for students also being able to work without being dependent of the smartphone. They have to be prepared for there business life. [[user:stgr|1417772760]Blending Formal and Informal LearningTraditional approaches with roots in the 18th century and earlier are still very common in many schools, and often stifle learning as much as they foster it. As the Internet has brought the ability to learn something about almost anything to the palm of one’s hand, there is an increasing interest in the kinds of self-directed, curiosity-based learning that has long been common in museums and science centers. These and other more serendipitous forms of learning fall under the banner of Informal learning, and serve to enhance student engagement by encouraging them to follow their own learning pathways and interests. Many experts believe that a blending of formal and informal methods of teaching and learning can create an environment that fosters experimentation, curiosity, and above all, creativity. - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014: Some systems purchased, i.e. LMS platforms (where paying for storage is a major cost) is, in low-spending budgets, stopping possibilities for blended learning and innovative, creative use of multiple sources for Learning. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014 - Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Ann.Sorum.Michaelsen Dec 4, 2014- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014 - ylva.pettersson ylva.pettersson Dec 6, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014
- ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014 - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 - Andreas.lund Andreas.lund Dec 7, 2014
Informal learning is not the goal for education in school. This runs contrary to the last 200 years of school policy, and will be difficult to achieve. - jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014
The goal for education in school is to prepare the students to be able to become participating members of the society. I belive you nedd both formal and informal learning to achieve that, maybe the most important is the informal? - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014
If all learning is relevant to the individual learner, and the individual learner is relevant to education, then I agree that this is an important challenge faced by schools. - sara.mortsell sara.mortsell Dec 7, 2014
If the ability to use digital tools are considered important by the governments, it is strange that we don't try such competence in the exams that our 10th graders are put through. With a small exception for mathematics where excel and Geogebra is now part of the exam.- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014

Competition from New Models of Education
New models of education are bringing unprecedented competition to schools, especially for students whose needs are not being well served by the current system. Charter and online schools have particularly gained traction in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Scandinavia. According to the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, there are more than 6,000 charter schools in the US alone with more than 1.9 million students enrolled, compared to over 98,000 public schools where 49.4 million students are enrolled. Most US states also offer and encourage enrollment in online courses, and some states are requiring students complete them in order to graduate. Adding to this challenge is the fact that many students do not formally attend either type of school; the National Center for Education Statistic reports that nearly 3% of the school-age population was home schooled during the 2010-11 school year. Ninety-one percent of the parents of these children cited concern over the environments of tradition and charter schools when asked about their choice. For school leaders and policy makers, the challenge is to meet such competition head on, offering high-quality alternatives to students who need them. As new platforms emerge, there is a growing need to frankly evaluate models and determine how to best support collaboration, interaction, deep learning experiences, and assessment at scale. - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 3, 2014: Will disruptive learning be part of a K-12 system in the next five years or is this Utopia? What about homework? Almost all homework is now distributor digitally, how can teachers even better use blending, disruptive technologies and flipped classroom through homework?

Complex Thinking and Communication
It is essential for young people both to understand the networked world in which they are growing up and also — through computational thinking — to understand the difference between human and artificial intelligence, learn how to use abstraction and decomposition when tackling complex tasks, and deploy heuristic reasoning to complex problems. The semantic web, big data, modelling technologies, and other innovations make new approaches to training learners in complex and systems thinking possible. Yet, mastering modes of complex thinking does not make an impact in isolation; communication skills must also be mastered for complex thinking to be applied meaningfully. Indeed, the most effective leaders are outstanding communicators with a high level of social intelligence; their capacity to connect people with other people, using technologies to collaborate and leveraging data to support their ideas, requires an ability to understand the bigger picture and to make appeals that are based on logic, data, and instinct. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 - Andreas.lund Andreas.lund Dec 7, 2014- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014

Creating Authentic Learning Opportunities
Authentic learning, especially that which brings real life experiences into the classroom, is still all too uncommon in schools. Authentic learning is seen as an important pedagogical strategy, with great potential to increase the engagement of students who are seeking some connection between the world as they know it exists outside of school, and their experiences in school that are meant to prepare them for that world. Use of learning strategies that incorporate real life experiences, technology, and tools that are already familiar to students, and interactions from community members are examples of approaches that can bring authentic learning into the classroom. Practices such as these may help retain students in school and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are too often failing to do. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014 One example of Authentic Learning is the book written by high School student in Norway, Connected Learners. The book is sold through Amazon and is used by many teachers. Writing and promoting the book opened up for many speaking and workshop opportunites for the students. ¨¨¨¨- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014 Important but difficult. There are som excellent examples such as the upper secondary school YBC in Nacka, Sweden.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 The use of different kinds of OER:s opens new doors for the classroom to be connected to the outside world and to interact with the local as well as the worldwide community. Use of Wikipedia as a tool for engaging, and developing new learning-material, is a great example. Platforms like Wikiversity allow students to create their own OER:s in a global environment, in real collaboration with any interested party - person, organization, school, workplace etc., thus promoting real-life learning experiences as well as citizenship. Swedish teachers are forerunners in these areas and good examples can be found both in Wikiversity and in Wikimini. - ylva.pettersson ylva.pettersson Dec 6, 2014 The authentic learning opportunity is also vital in order to break isolation (segregation) and having students interact with a diverse group of people. How much this matters to learning a new language and culture cannot be understated, a good example is this blog from Stockholm where two groups of students from different parts of town, and one group new in Sweden and the other well established, interacted over reading the same literature, - sara.mortsell sara.mortsell Dec 6, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014

Improving Usability of IT Services
This is probably the most cost saving factor never talked about when it comes to public purchasing of IT services. Better usability can reduce the time it takes for someone to perform a task meaning more efficient and happier users. Efficient and happy is usually something good. Great usability will mean zero training (almost at least), which is a paradigm shift for officials who believe training is one of the biggest costs of implementing a system. Having good usability will increase the time the student or teacher can put into actually creating value or learning. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014

Integrating Personalizing Learning
Personalized learning includes a wide variety of approaches to support self-directed and group-based learning that can be designed around each learner’s goals. . Solving this challenge means incorporating into school activities concepts such as personalized learning environments and networks, adaptive learning tools, and more. Using a growing set of free and simple resources, such as a collection of apps on a tablet, it is already quite easy to support one’s on going social and professional learning and other activities with a collection of resources and tools that is always on hand. There are two paths of development for personalized learning: the first is organized by and for the learner, which includes apps, social media, and related software. School goals and interests are driving the other path, primarily in the form of adaptive learning. In this pathway, which envisions the development of tools and data streams that are still some time away from being seen in schools, adaptive learning is enabled by intervention-focused machine intelligence that interprets data about how a student is learning and responds by changing the learning environment based on their needs. While the concept of personalized learning is fairly fluid, it is becoming more and more clear that it is individualized by design, different from person to person, and built around a vision of life-long learning. Personalized learning - Fullan: A Rich Seam - can be one of the important bricks to build a more engaging deep learning experience for students to get them engaged and motivated in the learning process. Building partnerships between students and teachers, focusing on 21st century skills in the learning process and continuous measurement, and invest heavily in both leaders and teachers capacity building. Moving in this direction will change the way of teaching and the way of learning. The aim is to create happier and more motivated students as well as more engaged teachers. This attempt to learning is being executed in the New Pedagogies for Deep Learning Project. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014Michal Fullan:
We see four fundamental barriers currently standing between the theory and practice of deep learning, including inadequate development of the following: 1. Policies and system-level strategies that enable diffusion 2. Accepted ways of measuring deep learning 3. Adoption of new pedagogical models that foster deep learning 4. Knowledge of how students adopt deep learning practices- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014

Integrating Technology in Teacher Education
Teacher training still does not acknowledge the fact that digital media literacy continues its rise in importance as a key skill in every discipline and profession. Despite the widespread agreement on the importance of digital competence, training in the supporting skills and techniques is rare in teacher education and non-existent in the preparation of teachers. As teachers begin to realize that they are limiting their students by not helping them to develop and use digital competence skills across the curriculum, the lack of formal training is being offset through professional development or informal learning, but we are far from seeing digital media literacy as a norm. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that digital literacy is less about tools and more about thinking, and thus skills and standards based on tools and platforms have proven to be somewhat ephemeral. - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014:We see that the use of digital skills for pedagogical use is as weak among younger, recently educated Teachers as among the oldest Teachers. Of course there are plenty of exceptions from this rule, in both age groups, but still, the pattern is clear: Older teachers are more likely to keep their traditional ways of teachering, especially if they have limited digital basic skills. The youngest Teachers have good basic skills, but not enough experience in teaching to implement good practices and know how to challenge traditional classroom thinking With New Learning styles through digital platforms or Tools, especially as this has not been focused on through their studies. The most innovative digital group of teachers are often found between age 35 and 50, with enough teaching experience to challenge themselves and enough digital competence to know how to apply new pedagogies to their learning environment of reponsibility. - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014: The structural organisation in Teacher Education is important to how the Universities / University Colleges manage to implement a good culture for digital literacy to their staff / faculty. Studies have found that pedagogical use of digital tools and platforms are best implemented where teacher Education is organised as one unit, oposite to where it is organised with a matrix structure with more autonomy for each subject / Department. In the last Version, the study from The Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU) (2013, in Norwegian) find that dean and directors for organisations with a matrix structure tend to delegate responsibility for integrating technology to purchasers or the ICT-department, with little or no direct understanding of learning and pedagogies. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014 - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014 The survey of higher education Digital tilstand 2014 still finds that institution leadership delegates ICT to "innovators", not taking responsibility for involving early adopters and mainstream teachers. In spite of quite a number of national CPD initiatives too many teachers are still only occasional users of ICT in education. And as the results from ICILS 2013 shows – Danish teachers are at the absolute top in terms of integration of ICT in teaching and in student-activities. But widely IT is used to a traditional type of teaching. ICILS 2013 - Denmark The new reform of the teacher education curriculums remains to prove its value as a catalyst to improve this situation.- jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 Ideally, we should have coherence between curriculum requirements With regard to ICT use in subjects in Schools on the one hand and ICT in teacher training on the other hand. In Norway, that is not the case, even though some regulatory changes in 2010 closed the gap somewhat - oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014 - morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014This is the case in Sweden too. The gap is huge between how ICT affects the schools, in comparison with how it affects teacher education. - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014
A major challenge in the Swedish system where teacher education now is very integrated in the "ordinary" university. This means that teacher students are integrated with the other students for most of the time.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014
See: - Andreas.lund Andreas.lund Dec 7, 2014 The extent to which teacher trainers actually utilize ICT in their teaching varies a lot from person to person in Norway. Regional and local differences emerge between and within the different teacher education institutions, affecting student teachers’ digital competence. There are also discrepancies in how ICT is integrated at different institutions, and also within different fields of study. It seems as if the integration of ICT in teacher training to some extent is up to the individual teacher trainer, and as a result of this, students attending the same institutions can receive divergent levels of ICT training, depending on the teacher they have and the courses they take. Hence, students from different teacher training institutions are differently educated when it comes to ICT skills and competences.- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014
The results from the Danish report ICILS 2013 shows that Danish teachers are at the absolute top in terms of integration of ICT in teaching and in student-activities. But widely IT is used to a traditional type of teaching. ICILS 2013 - Denmark- jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 3, 2014: Time is a factor in building digital competence among teachers: according to last years' fight in both Denmark and Norway over how staff time outside the classroom will be spent, teachers are close to a breaching point on how many areas and tasks being put into their work week. In-faculty training and joint staff professional development time has to be re-thought. School staff cannot collectively focus equally much on digital competencies, literacy training models, physical education blended into daily routines, social skills training programs, etc. How do we solve this? How can we give school owners and leveres the overall competency of scaling professional development in a reasonable way, to support the teachers' work in the classroom? - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 3, 2014 The Norwegian Government is now planning to put about 1000 teachers annually in a re-education programme. Even if this is double of previous years, it still is a small number. At the same time I expect digital competence to be a major part of the extension of teacher training to a 5-year master. Given an average of 65000 Norwegian teachers over the last five years and a 5 % annual turnover of teachers, it will take at least 20 years before all teachers either have a master degree or have been through the governmental programme; in the last group digital competence courses make just a small number of the overall offered courses. I think a sum similar to the one supporting year courses for teachers in universities or univesity colleges has to be granted to school for all staff-training in order to provide them with competent lecturers and trainers from outside the school.
The teachers lack of digital competence is the main challenge, and several incentives are needed to change this situation. School based training, Continued Professional development and learning networks are some of these - Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Dec 7, 2014- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014 Traditional ICT courses for teachers seem very outdated. Instead giving teachers time in their timetables to work together on testing out new teaching methods including new use of technology is often proved successful. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014 Improving teachers At least in Sweden it's very obvious that the current build of teachers are not equipped to develop ICT use and integrate it in learning processes (some are not even equipped to be teachers if you look at the recent OECD report). I think I'm very lucky to be working with some of the best teachers at this in my school but in general there's a bad fit between teachers working today and the potential technology is bringing. I don't expect teachers to be very advanced users of technology, they don't have to be, but they need to improve their understanding of what technology can be used for and how digital processes differ from analog. Too many are doing the same stuff they've been doing for decades but with hugely more expensive gear. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014- Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Dec 3, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014

Keeping Formal Education Relevant
As online learning and free educational content become more pervasive, stakeholders and administrators must seriously consider what schools can provide that cannot be replicated by other sources. It is no longer necessary for parents to send their children to school for them to become knowledgeable and gain skills that will lead them to gainful employment. There are, however, valuable skills and attitudes that can only be acquired in school settings. Soft skills, such as face-to-face communication and collaboration, for instance, are essential practices for solving problems in a world that is increasingly interconnected. Similarly, work ethic and the ability to persevere through even the toughest challenges, both social and academic, are reinforced in formal education environments. The idea is to rethink the value of education as a means of reinforcing attitudes and skills learners will need to seek credible information, work effectively in teams, and persist in achieving their goals. A recent survey by the Workforce Solutions Group found that more than 60% of employers say applicants lack “communication and interpersonal skills.” On the same note, the National Association of Colleges and Employers surveyed more than 200 employers about their top ten priorities in new hires and found that hiring managers desire people who are team players, problem solvers and can plan, organize and prioritize their work while technical skills fell lower on the list. Generally speaking, trends in hiring make it clear that soft skills such as communication and work ethic are differentiating outstanding applicants from the pile. "It is no longer necessary for parents to send their children to school for them to become knowledgeable and gain skills that will lead them to gainful employment." I do not agree. E.g. math, as taught in school, is as necessary as ever to gainful employment. Math can theoretically be learned outside school, but so can soft skills. - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Nov 26, 2014 Quite a number of boys do not find (formal) education relevant, and the drop-out ratios are a big challenge to the education system – and to the society. The analysis “Use of digital learning resources – impact measurement” from 2014 shows that the use of digital learning resources can help motivate the students. Among other things the fact that the learning resource is digital itself contributes to motivation along with e.g. the variation in the learning environment and the possibility for immediate feedback that the digital learning resources provide. Use of digital learning resources – impact measurement and English abstract- jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014
One key way of keeping formal education relevant for our students is to provide it with narrow issues according their working interest. Many boys a interested in speed competitions and also in compiting with others. In Denmark the primaryschools using the Math professor as an digital competionplatform and at the same time to keep them interesting in mathmatic. I think we need to invent more of theese kinds of motivation for keeping students interesting in formal education.- tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014 We have a project running at HANSENBERG, Rybners, EUC Syd and with Praxis in using a developed digital program (FrontRead) for helping students in being better readers. This project also brings competition in Progress. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014 as stated above, several research proves that by using digital not only coherently but also by introducing new pedagogical methods driven by digital will many boys be much more motivated and drop out rates will minimize. So the question is merely HOW can content and experiences be made available to teachers, and HOW can we secure that teachers' capacity building will focus on this important area? - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014

Managing Knowledge Obsolescence
Simply staying organized and current presents a challenge in a world where information, software tools, and devices proliferate at the rate they do today. New developments in technology are exciting and their potential for improving quality of life is enticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to keep up with even a few of the many new tools that are released. User-created content is exploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but following even some of the hundreds of available authorities means sifting through a mountain of information on a weekly or daily basis. There is a greater need than ever for effective tools and filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and retrieving the data that is important to us. It is very difficult for teachers to navigate in the world of new technologies, not to mention the world of learning objects. We need authors who put technologies and learning objects together into meaningful coherent courses. Such courses can be used (and adjusted) by teachers. Twenty years ago, teachers could use a text book with state of the art technology. Now, we need a new kind of "text book" incorporating state of the art of technology, ideas etc. - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Nov 26, 2014 We need a national stadardisation for educational saftware tools. Teachers use a lot of time in selecting relevant software for their educational use. Therefor an expertgroup could be ediquite in helping with relevant software. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014 A national standardization would first of all jeopardize competition - and is most likely not legal - but it would also slow down the general development of software. The incredible evolvement we have seen over the last 5 years would never have happened without competition. This has been hugely beneficial to the consumers. Of course it is cumbersome and time consuming finding, evaluating and deciding on relevant software for educational use. But instead of leaving the decision to a national (government) entity, much more interesting to have teachers collaborate, interact and discuss as well as sharing best practices on selecting relevant software. Fora for this are available on national, European an global level. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014 We have to build up an effective knowledge leading, knowledge sharing, knowledge innovation and knowledge cooperation, for being effective in our managing of knowledge obsolescence. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014

Safety of Student Data
Safety of student data has long been a concern in K-12 education, which is evident through legislation that has been passed to safeguard students and their personal data. As schools embrace ubiquitous technology, and more learning takes place online in 1:1 settings, many see great potential to leverage these digital learning environments to mine data, which can be used to decipher trends in student behavior and create personalized software. Schools around the world are adopting cloud computing to support adaptive learning, promote cost-savings, and encourage collaboration, but the collection of student data by third party providers has created apprehension and outright suspicion from parents and leaders in the field. - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014: The Google and Facebook relationships with NSA's PRISM program, revealed in 2014, has been nurturing this suspicion and scepticism to cloud hosting of student data. Many producers of cloud learning platforms have to find ways to host their platforms in order to secure the that data are managed under national legislation. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014 - Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Dec 3, 2014 - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014 This is always a needed area. We have to secure the safety of student data. This is a need and we must as schools provide safety data storige for student data. In our school at HANSENBERG we use on primises datastorige, but we are working on cloud storige. In Denmark at least we can as educational institutions use Microsoft cloud (365) for less Money then it cost to run an internal server. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014

Scaling Teaching Innovations
Our organizations are not adept at moving teaching innovations into mainstream practice. Innovation springs from the freedom to connect ideas in new ways. Our schools and universities generally allow us to connect ideas only in prescribed ways — sometimes these lead to new insights, but more likely they lead to rote learning. Current organizational promotion structures rarely reward innovation and improvements in teaching and learning. A pervasive aversion to change limits the diffusion of new ideas, and too often discourages experimentation. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014 - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014
An important challenge is that many teachers don't want to be led or controlled. - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Nov 26, 2014
In Sweden, cities and regions across the country are running websites, aimed at school leaders, teachers and school librarians, that describes local innovations in teaching practice and collaborative professional development. These websites have recently started to collaborate, in order to share the insights and spread innovative thinking and action. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014
Researchers and teacher educators at Uppsala University, have recently initiated a service - Acedu - that aims to collect, analyze, evaluate and share good examples of teaching from education at all levels in Sweden, from pre-school to higher education. The purpose is to create a continuously evolving database that can give scientific and peer support to innovation and development of teaching practice. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014
Scaling innovations in the education system is a major challenge. Teachers seem to be unwilling to accept working methods designed by others than themselves. For innovations to scale we also need more collaboration between teachers and less of the model "one teacher, one class".- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 We have models – The EU (EUN) iTec project have experience and a methodology that can be used in the proposal for mainstreaming and scaling up. - morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014
An important asset is the fact that many teachers don't want to be led or controlled. With more skill in utilizing human resources this could be turned into a key to success. This would however require for politicians and heads/managers of schools to trust teachers and treat them as professionals. - ylva.pettersson ylva.pettersson Dec 6, 2014
New models of innovation in education are needed. Structures within education, and specifically economical and managerial strucutures, need to be re-imagined in such a way that local, contextualised innovation can be identified, verified, and spread. - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014 A barrier for scaling might well be the language often used; Introducing "Innovations" or "solutions" from outside says "what you're doing right here is wrong". Personally I think teachers are right in being skeptical; who benefits from introducing something they label as "innovative"? Perhaps the same one who benefits from the School Crisis narrative, where trust in teachers is lacking? Flipped classroom has gained headway because it is so similar to a teacher's current practice, delivering their own content, and a solution to their own problem of managing student interaction. - sara.mortsell sara.mortsell Dec 6, 2014 Can innovation in education be defined as focusing on 21st century skills, interdisciplinary and project based learning? as such this if dependent on more than the single teachers. School leadership, having a strong vision in place and a strategy for following up on the vision, capacity building for the teachers focusing on 21st century skills, extra time in the time table to make room for integrating this and testing out new teaching and learning methods. Focus on the learning of the single student - how can every student be brought forward in his or her learning? By integrating technology into every aspect of the strategy as a tool to drive the process. Engage parents in the process. Last but not least assessment is a very important topic to consider. Only by changing the assessment system to measure new ways of teaching will this happen. All school leaders and teachers want their students to be succeed .Teachers prepare their students for exams/assessment, assessment need to be flexible over time, to assess actual learning and not measure knowledge. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014 Michal Fullan on Deep Learning: We see four fundamental barriers currently standing between the theory and practice of deep learning, including inadequate development of the following:
1. Policies and system-level strategies that enable diffusion
2. Accepted ways of measuring deep learning
3. Adoption of new pedagogical models that foster deep learning
4. Knowledge of how students adopt deep learning practices
Growth of School Incubators A colleague of ours (sounds almost mafia style), Per Falk (don't think he's here but he should be), launched this idea which we are kind of hooked on. Having an incubator that develops a pedagogical solutions would be a great way to make sure technology fits the needs of the teachers and students. We're seeing a lot of services and purchases being made that badly fits our special environment. In a way I do think we're our own little incubator too. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 Per and I (Carl Heath) have been discussing this at length. The idea is to enable staff within the educational system to innovate at an increased rate, and do this through a participatory process of co-creation where there is a lot of agency and freedom for the innovating actor. A system for designing freedom within an otherwise relatively contained environment. - karinnygards karinnygards Dec 7, 2014 [Editor's Note: Moved here from RQ3.] Sharing Digital Learning Resources and Innovative Teaching Practices. Technology makes knowledge sharing in schools and among teachers easier e.g. sharing digital learning resources, innovative teaching practices, learning courses, good examples etc. Hopefully the knowledge sharing will increase in the next years. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 I'm seeing this happen quite a lot at our school but we want more. We're looking at a change in practice and culture which will improve the effect of our teachers. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 Researchers and teacher educators at Uppsala University, have recently initiated a service - Acedu - that collect, analyze, evaluate and share good examples of teaching at all levels. - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 We're creating a visibly similiar but still very different kind of beast than Acedu with our Looper project. It's focused on professional development through training by sharing video documented parts of lessons. Based on Timperley, Williams, Teitel etc. it uses cyclic movement to gradually and continuously improve the teachers actions in the classroom. It's in first stage prototyping now so we can't show you anything unfortunately. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 This is already in practice but more as a bottom-up activity than as institutionalised policies. Many teachers share and learn from each other although their principals might not be aware it is happening.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 [Editor's Note: Moved here from RQ3.] Agree - and changing this culture is pivotal. School leaders need to take responsibility for including this in the school culture. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 20147 I feel that the teachers have been better to share materials. Instead, some teachers find it difficult to use the material developed by others. This is related to different ways of teaching. Another problem is that teachers are not good at describing how they use the material, and the material often serves as support material for the theacher. So, besides the culture to share materials we need a culture where teachers describe the pedagogical context they used the meterial. Sharing can also be knowledge in the form of examples from their teaching. Here we work with inspiration-videos. [[user:stgr|1417772760]Innovation and technology as an independent subject* Innovation and technology as an independent subject. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014Computer Science as part of the National Curriculum, as they have in the UK. Are we even having this debate in Scandinavia? - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014 Yes we do have that debate, at least in Sweden we do. I'm not in favor of creating a subject like Computing in the UK, but we do have to upgrade the importance of innovation, technology and understanding the systems. The Swedish party Moderaterna suggested in june, that coding should be an elective subject along with "craft". This was something that Mehmet Kaplan, minister in charge of IT development, also rised as an option when he gave a speech at Internetdagarna the other week. I think it is important to not make it optional and I don't think creating another STEM-subject is the right way either.- karinnygards karinnygards Dec 7, 2014

School Infrastructures are Under-Resourced
Critical school infrastructures are under-resourced. Rather than encouraging researchers to build on and extend core resources, leverage shared file systems, and open accessible service APIs, institutions are narrowing their focus to what they perceive as the minimal subset of enterprise services they can afford to sustain. As a result, educators are often trying to design new, innovative learning models that must be integrated with outdated, pre-existing technology and learning management systems. - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014: The problem with tenders: Municipalities and counties put out tenders for building infrastructure. When pricing is weighted more than 50% in validating the bids, they tend to buy weaker, cheaper infrastructure that is close to outdated the day it is installed. A cheap access point for wireless network in a school is a huge problem for educators using cloud Learning platforms. There also seem to be little understanding among buyers and school authorities about how to scale different parts of their infrastructure so they fit to each other. Buying 1:1 devices with a knealing network is simply bad planning. / - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014 Buying 1:1 is also a challenge for many Schools: trying to fullfill expectations of a 1:1 infrastructure, some schools buy cheap, slow, computers to students, which make a problem stealing time from learning. / - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014: School infrastructure, combined with exercised skills among staff at the schools is the new class distinction. There can be enormous differences between neighbouring municipalities and even neighbouring schools in the same municipality. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014
This is a great challenge in Denmark. A lot could be gained if teachers were willing to document and share innovative teaching practices – and colleagues were willing to learn from these experiences and take up and re-use resources from colleagues. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 This is clearly a managment issue. We need to build a culture where sharing is norm and experimentation is rewarded. Administrators and high officials need to walk the talk and cease being a barrier for schools and teachers who try to innovate just because they feel that they are loosing control. But to foster a culture of innovation and growth we (us working within the schools) also need to have guts and understand that it's our responsibility to make things happen. Innovation is a bottom-up process. Everything else is eye-candy or stepping stones for someone who cares more about career than of school development. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014 This is clearly a leadership issue. School leaders (and School Districts) need to be role models - oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014
In higher education in Norway there is a series of projects working on documenting campus best practices for ICT infrastructure, and combining this with joint procurement has led to much better infrastructure. This is possible partly because there are less than 50 universities/university colleges, whereas with more than 440 school districts (kommune + fylke) with greater degree of autonomy this gets more complex - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014 I know that some of the Danish uper secondary schools are working facilitate teachers in document and sharing innovative teaching practices - but the Work is hard, because the teachers have not build up a trustfull innovative sharing. It is an area that must be constentius facilitated. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014

Students’ Low Digital Competence
Despite a range of regional and global media literacy initiatives, research shows that the levels of media literacy knowledge and skills in children and teenagers are inadequate, especially for the dimensions of critical and participatory literacy. In an age when news often spreads virally through social media, it is critical that young people learn how to analyze and evaluate the authenticity of myriad messages they encounter everyday. According to current research, most young people feel comfortable using technology, and many are savvy enough to produce and share content, but they lack understanding of its impact or how to leverage it for the greater good — especially in the realm of education. - stefan stefan Nov 30, 2014 IEA International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2013, presented last week, shows that many eighth graders in the twenty participating countries haven't developed the digital and critical media skills that are needed in order to be able to participate effectively at home, at school, in the workplace, and in the community. Denmark and Norway are among the high achieving countries, but there are problems that need to be solved. In both countries, traditional teaching is still dominating everyday life in school, and more collaborative and investigating teaching methods that make good use of ICT and digital media are still not common. Three researchers at Aarhus University analyze ICILS 2013 in a book that was published last week. They point to the fact that large resources have been used to build a working digital infrastructure, but now is it need to put more energy to the didactical issues and encourage collaborative learning both among pupils and teachers. The results from the Danish report ICILS 2013 shows that Danish pupils are among the top third to use computers for educational purposes, but they are not very advanced in their use of computers at home. ICILS 2013 - Denmark- jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014
The Norwegian students have decent scores in the ICILS study, but still more than half of the students are on the lower proficiency Levels. And - to make Things "worse" - according to the study ICT use in subjects is low - especially in Math and science. So is School use is low and the digital skills are decent or good - who gets the credit? :)- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014

New Challenges Added by Panel

Confusion Between "Teaching Digital Competence" and "Using Digital Competence to Teach Other Subjects"
Learning digital competence is very different from using digital tools in other subjects (like language and science), just like learning to read is different from using text to explain math. However, in the discussion these are often mixed up. Some people want teacher education to teach digital competence, other to use tools in math and science. Public funding for digital education often do not specify which of the goals they want to support. - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Nov 26, 2014 - vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014- lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014: Through his theories on connectivism, Stephen Downes has said that the most important competence for learning for a future work life is to be able to build and traverse networks. This is in opostition to a traditional educational thinking where i.e. exams are done on paper with no help allowed. We have to connect learning digital competence to applying the comptencies actively in learning strategies, even in exam situations. This means that we in many aspects have to re-think education within the frames of life-long Learning. - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 In this context there is also a need to broaden and re-frame the concept of Digital Competence as well. Here the concept of ICT as a design material, programming in education etc needs to take a stonger foot-hold. - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014

Creating an Environment Where Technology Supports Learning Equity
Creating an environment where technology supports learning equity and does not widen the gap between high and low performers. We've seen some early signals that motivated students benefit from having access to technology while less motivated will use is as a diversion. We need to find ways to engage all students and use technology to promote their learning while keeping equity in focus. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014 Regarding access to digital tools / computers / tablets. It's too big differences between schools and between municipalities. Regarding the competence of teachers. There is too much variation in terms of teachers' conditions, knowledge and interests when it comes to using the technology available in the classrooms. - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Dec 4, 2014

Creating Systemic Policy and Synergies for Better Learning
The digital dimension of the Norwegian Knowledge Promotion Reform has been insufficiently coordinated throughout the broad programmes and instruments encompassed by the reform. Digital skills were a new skills set in the reform, with a weaker knowledge base than the established skills: oral skills, reading, writing and arithmetic. With some honourable exceptions, digital skills have not been made clear in the competence objectives, forms of assessment rarely include digital tools, and forms of teaching are only relatively little adapted to the use of ICT. We need to explore the growing economic and educational imperative for new strategies and policies to achieve an ubiquitous technology environment at school, at home and in the community. Leadership in the use of educational technology requires a map and a compass to guide decision-making and action plans. To be truly useful, such roadmaps need to strike a delicate balance: they must incorporate a contextual understanding of real-world technologies, but remain grounded in pedagogical frameworks that guide their application.- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 7, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014
How about a bimodal strategy, where we look at the core subjects of education where we can have a long term strategy, and the more flexible areas that needs to change over time. - karinnygards karinnygards Dec 7, 2014

Focus on Technology Over Education
- ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014 There is still a very strong belief that technology in itself is a saviour of education, and if we just have the tools and technologies, everything will be all right. This belief hinders development firstly by driving resources towards the technology, and secondly by limiting the development of sound vocational training for educators. As technology and society evolves in an ever more increasing speed, so teachers need to increase their loop of training, so that they are in tune with the society surrounding them. It is no longer possible to continue to teach the same content, in the same environment, using the same tools, when all of these three domains change due in part to technology. New models of continual teacher training, that is more societal, contextual and close to the needs of the current society needs to be put to place. Due to the lack of an up to date teacher training environment in these areas, such training will have to be catered for elsewhere.

Impact of Ergonomics
Screen quality, posture etc. often cause students to like computers less than they could have done. [[user:Ellef.fange.gjelstad|1417074763]The digital divide - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014
According to a 2013 Pew Research Centre survey, 84% of teachers said "today's digital technologies are leading to gretten disparities between affluent and disadvantaged schools". We see neighbouring schools being on extremely different levels regarding penetration of digital tools, staff skills and effective use in learning situations.

Implementing Knowledge and Success from other Parts of Society in the Educational System
- ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014 There is a tendency for the formal educational system to not look into the practices of other parts of society, be they public or private. Due to digtalisation, learning has not only changed in the formal educational system but also elsewhere in society and in the private sector. Here there are lots of knowledge to tap into, that would greatly enhance processes, projects, content and structure of education. An opening up of education into the rest of society will be needed in order for education to stay relevant in society over the long run. -I agree, the changes we have to go through to modernize education are massive and we have a lot to learn from other sectors, like the health care system. How do we create real change and value from technology, and not just exchange one tool with an other? We can learn from mistakes and imitate good examples. The music industry had to change when spotify had its big break through. Traditional newspapers and broadcast media are forced to think differently because of technology. School still has its monopoly where kids have to go to school every day. That doesn't mean we don't have to upgrade the system. - karinnygards karinnygards Dec 7, 2014

Low Buyer Competency in Schools and Municipality Administrations
- lars.persen lars.persen Dec 3, 2014: There is a huge spectre of technologies, programs, apps etc to chose from. At the same time we know that buyer's competency in management is reasonably low. Some counties and municipalities have built a competency within certainly areas, but will still have problems to chose from ratiltalt uker criterias; user friendliness, cost efficiency, OS dependency or platform independency, learning effect, scaling digital tools for staff etc. The secondary problem to this is that many schools buy licenses, platforms or tools based on one teacher's advice, hear-saying and mainstreaming (do what others do) and therefore have tools and licenses they never use. From our experience this is mainly a problem at top administrative level. People who are purchasing our equipment have never worked in schools or might not even be interested in schools. Money and quantity matters more than efficiency and usability which leaves us with a huge of amount of expensive stuff we can't use. Schools do this better themselves if they have the right people in place. You don't buy a bus if you're perfectly ok with riding a bike to work. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 I believe this is a critical factor on both high level and locally. The low competence in procurement and its effects create large scale dysfunctions in the educational system. A good example of such a tragedy is the procurement in Stockholm some years back. Its not a singular incident in any way, but most likely one of the most costly mis-managements of ICT in education ever in Sweden. See for example for more on this topic. - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014 Ordering Decisions regarding the purchase that is not based on what students and teachers need to best educate students for the future, but rather builds individuals enjoy the spirit. It can be anything from computers themselves / surf plates to cloud services.- helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Dec 4, 2014

Reflexivity Over Attention to Media
The new media environment means a lot of distraction in the classroom and most children and young people think they can multitask why they often try to play computer games or write on Facebook while the teacher teach. Therefor digital literacy must include training of students in being reflective in relation to their attention and use of media. - imvjet imvjet Nov 17, 2014 ...and to train teachers to be good at class management in a multimedia world; to be able to chose for the students when necessary, open for all platforms and media when applicable, and even say no to use of technology when the task asks for other skills to be trained among students.- lars.persen lars.persen Dec 3, 2014

Updating Modes of Assessment
Tradition: assessment has been intended to capture pupils achievements in a delimited subject area, at a certain time Existing models of assessment are typically at odds with: high-­‐level skills, knowledge, attitudes, self directed learning and collaborative learning. A shared understanding will better prepare teachers, researchers and policymakers to go collectively beyond current assessment practices and explore assessment practices designed for our digital age. ICT offer many opportunities for supporting
assessment formats that can capture complex skills and competences that are otherwise difficult to assess. ICT assessment strategies have been grounded in the traditional assessment paradigm, which has for centuries dominated formal education and training and is based on the explicit testing of knowledge. We need to address a deeper notions of learning along with policymaking. Develop ICT environments and new formative assessment tools; learning analytics.- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014