Research Question 2: What key technologies are missing from our list?


Instructions: Please use these prompts to help you consider what might need to be added to the current list of Horizon Topics. Add your thoughts as bullet points below, using a new bullet point for each new technology or topic. Please add your comments to previous entries if you agree or disagree.
a. What would you list among the established technologies that some Scandinavian schools are using today that arguably ALL Scandinavian should using broadly to support or enhance teaching, learning, or creative inquiry?
b. What technologies that have a solid user base in consumer, entertainment, or other industries should Scandinavian schools be actively looking for ways to apply?
c. What are the key emerging technologies you see developing to the point that Scandinavian schools should begin to take notice during the next 4 to 5 years?

Each new topic entry must include a title, a description similar to the ones that are written now, and, if needed, a rationale as to why it is different from any of the existing topics. The Horizon Project research team will investigate each nomination entered here to see if it meets the criteria set for new topics (eg., that the topic represents a "real" technology, as opposed to a concept, a new idea, or a proposal; that it is sufficiently developed that research, projects, and information about it exist; and that it has a demonstrable link, or strong potential link, to education).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking them with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples.



New Technology Topics


4D printing
Multi-material 3D-printing which allows the researchers to program different material properties into each of the various particles of the designed geometry and harnesses the different water-absorbing properties of the materials to activate the self-assembly process. When 3D-printing picks up more in Schools, we might also see transfer to multi-material use in education. This most apply to 10-12, in subjects fit to educate for research or construction. Fast Company on MIT's programme for 4D-printing - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014

Basic Computing Teaching Devices
Devices to teach basic computing such as http://www.raspberrypi.org/ and similar alternatives http://www.techrepublic.com/pictures/raspberry-pi-five-alternative-boards-for-hackers-and-modders/1/
- kristineploug kristineploug Nov 28, 2014 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014 Plays well with Lær Kidsa Koding and the teach kids to code movement.

Digital Course Creation Tools
Coherent courses using digital tools. Currently, we have a number of interesting digital (and analog) tools. It is, however, demanding for the teacher to edit these together in a coherent package for the students. Authors will publish coherent courses using texts, videos, exercises and all sorts of tools, to be used by teachers. Such courses will fill the traditional role of a book, but the new kind of "book" will be digital and editable. Experiments in this direction include Gyldendal Smartbok and TapBookAuthor. - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Nov 26, 2014 - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014 The tools above are mostly for the teacher, but many of the same issues are present from the point of view of students using for example Evernote/OneNote to organize their own learning environment as a coherent course. One example from higher education is from the teacher training course at HiST where the tool PresentIT is used to build a coherent course, while the content is about coherence from the student or PLN perspective http://presentit.hist.no/itfag/lectures/view/12

Robotics and Programming
Should be interesting in the age of the algorithm... At least more interesting than making a wooden cutting board (not that there's anything wrong with that). - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 2, 2014

Virtual Reality
Virtual Reality is now appearing as consumer devises with Oculus Rift (http://www.oculus.com/ - set to be released in the consumer version in 2015) and Sony's Project Morpheus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Morpheus_(virtual_reality). If VR takes off it has a lot of interesting potential for teaching. Imagine experiencing history yourself.
- kristineploug kristineploug Nov 21, 2014 - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014
- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 4, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014
- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014
- Andreas.lund Andreas.lund Dec 7, 2014

Combined with Existing Technology Topics in RQ1


Andruino boards
- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 4, 2014
Hybrid Data Infrastructure
Data infrastructure including both Grid and Cloud data management, which is scaled to protect student data locally and still send encrypted cloud data to scientific communities in order to exploit big data in analyzing and fascilitating personalied learning for individual students. (applies to Learning analytics, but still a topic on it's own.) - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014 [Editor's Note: Great points! This will fit in well with the learning analytics discussion in RQ1, so we are adding it there.]

App for improving students reading capacity
The project is named "Læseløft Syd" and it is funded by Region Syddanmark Educational fundation.
http://frontread.dk/ You are able to find relevant material of the project on
http://laeseloeftsyd.wordpress.com/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcj0rTAq4Xk- tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014 [Editor's Note: We are combining this great insight with existing RQ1 topic Mobile Apps]

Battery technology
Even if wireless power is an interesting option the development of long-lasting batteries is more important as have been shown by the success in schools with devices that last for at leat a full school day activity. - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014
Kahoot Kahoot! is a game-based educational platform. With a new take on introducing a subject and formative assessment - through quizzing, collaboration and presentation of content - Kahoot! initiates peer-led discussions, with students left on the edge of their seats.- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 8, 2014 [Editor's Note: Great insights and example! Combining this with existing RQ1 topic Next Generation Batteries]

Scalable Open Source Virtual Servers and Software
This is not a huge thing but it will lower cost for online services and content. Setting up a server is also very fast and flexible. Being able to work with virtual servers and open source software will let schools adapt services directly to their needs as opposed to adapting school to some rigid system. Again usability in a sense. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 [Editor's Note: This fits in well with the RQ1 topic Open Hardware, so we are adding it there.] Open Source Software
As above but software related. Cost is always an issue for schools so there's a big potential in open source software. There will be added development cost if you want to adapt things but we can make this work on school level, not just system level. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 Open Metadata for Education - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014 Having national standards for metadata of learning objects and specific processes in education provides for the integration and building of digital services and tools that can communicate with eachother or other devises, things, and programs. Today SIS TK 450 (https://www.sis.se/informationsteknik-kontorsutrustning/it-till%C3%A4mpningar/sis-tk-450) provides such services, but this work can be greatly enhanced. Should common, open metadata exist, areas such as school drop out, learning analytics, service integration, etc can be greatly increased. Technologies such as these provide for system-level improvements that alter the context for which other services are provided, and thus have a huge potential in changing and developing the educational system. [Editor's Note: Great point! This is missing from the current RQ1 topic Open Hardware, so we will broaden that description for the purposes of voting to include open software.]

Federated Identification
- ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014 Skolfederation.se is a Swedish tool. It is an association of organizations that have agreed to trust each electronic identities in their IT systems. A single technical solution makes it possible to automatically translate the login as the user makes locally on their school logins in the connected e-services that the user has access to. The basic idea for an identity federation is that the authentication of users is made as close to the source as possible, in the school's case, preferably when the student or the teacher logs on to the school's internal network. If the school is a member of Skolfederation a function in the network, called Identity Provider, exhibits an electronic certificate that tells that the user is known and accepted by the school. The certificate is then sent via the Identity Federation to the service user wants to log on to, without a separate login. An important point is that sensitive data as user name and password never needs to be sent over the Internet. They are not stored nor the service provider. All that information is sent to the user is trusted and the type of user, it involved. This reduces the risk of sensitive information falling into the wrong hands. [Editor's Note: This fits in well with RQ1 topic Digital Identity and will be added there.]

Added as a New Trend to RQ3


Cognitive Load Theory
The cognitive load theory is not a technology, but the way a technological learning resource will be addressed in the student's brain, here mainly the working memory. Do we e.g. a video containing too much information can cause overload of the student. It may also be information noise, showing something on a video that does not match up with what is being said. The cognitive load theory is not new, but I think it contains some important parameters which should be incorporated when working with learning through the various technologies. Link: http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitive-load-theory-of-multimedia-learning-sweller.html and http://steinhardtapps.es.its.nyu.edu/create/courses/2174/reading/Bruenken_Plass_Leutner_EP.pdf
[[uWhen we have focus on the student role as a producer, we often isolate it to digital communication as the product, but most of the items we are using are digital designed, manufactured and often distributed. The student needs knowledge, skills and competencies for producing digital artifacts as special defined subject. ser:stgr|1417772760]] [Editor's Note: This is not a technology and reads like a trend, therefore it is being moved to RQ3.]

Computer Science in National Curriculum
Computer Science and Coding are now compulsory subjects within the UK Curriculum for all ages. Computer Science has become a highly employable discipline, is hugely in demand across sectors and there is a shortage of skills in this field in the marketplace. Important to look at the experience coming from the UK - it seems obvious to discuss this in more details in Scandinavia. Programs like KODU and Project Spark are free easy to use programming tool, that make coding fun. The global Hour of Code initiative focuses on the importance on highlighting coding within and outside education. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014 [Editor's Note: This reads more like a trend and will be added to RQ3]

New Kinds of Fast Interaction
Digital exercises and simulations are giving students quick response in new interactive ways. Such quick response to the learners is good for learning. Examples include spell checkers (word by word), grammar checkers (sentence by sentence), simulations, interactive exercises, DragonBox (operation by operation, equations) and Kikora (line by line, math). - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Dec 2, 2014 (- Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Dec 2, 2014 has commercial interests in Kikora) [Editor's Note: This reads more like a trend and we are adding it to RQ3.]

Students as producers of digital artifacts
When we have focus on the student role as a producer, we often isolate it to digital communication as the product, but most of the items we are using are digital designed, manufactured and often distributed. The student needs knowledge, skills and competencies for producing digital artifacts as special defined subject. [Editor's Note: This fits in well with an existing trend in RQ3 -- Shift from Students as Consumers to Producers -- and we are integrating it there.]

Synthetic Biology and DIY Biology - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014
Over the past decade biology and ICT have come to grow together in an ever more rapid speed. Over the past two to three years technology has decreased in cost exponentially, which enables for complex work in synthetic biology and DIY Bio contexts to enter the formal educational school system. Here computerisation, interaction design, biology and engineering come together in new and novel ways, and the field is thriving at the moment. Schools engage in contexts such as IGEM (
http://igem.org/Main_Page), public DIY bio labs open up (http://www.openscience.or.at/#!/vol?) and people form clubs and organisations (http://bionyfiken.se/). The field of DIY Bio is just about where computers where in the mid 1970s, with the difference of exponential growth on a larger scale. Here both primary and secondary education will be subject to interruption as this field, in combination with the quantified self movement, will take its foothold. [Editor's Note: This reads more like a trend and we are adding it to RQ3.]