Research Question 3: Key Trends Driving Educational Technology Adoption

What trends do you expect to have a significant impact on the ways in which Scandinavian schools approach our core missions of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry?

INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar).

Please "sign" your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: - Sam Sam Jul 1, 2013

NOTE: During the voting process, the Key Trends are sorted into three time-related categories:

Fast Trends
These are trends that are driving edtech adoption now, but will likely remain important for only next one to two years. Virtual Worlds was an example of a fast trend that swept up attention in 2007-8.

Mid-Range Trends
These trends will be important in decision-making for a longer term, and will likely continue to be a factor in decision-making for the next three to five years.

Long-Range Trends
These are trends that will continue to have impact on our decisions for a very long time. Many of them have been important for years, and continue to be so. These are the trends -- like mobile or social media -- that continue to develop in capability year over year.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

Compose your new entries like this:

Trend Name
Add your ideas here with a few complete sentences of description including full URLs for references (e.g. http://horizon.nmc.org). And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!



Agile Approaches to Change
Whenever I'm running a project at my school we do it through agile http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development philosophy. It doesn't have to do with system development even, last semester we did our own live talk show from school which was created using the same project management concept. I think agile philosophy is a great way of creating things especially in schools since we have a lot of knowledge about how we need things to be but little time to write specifications or engage completely in one project. We still need to do our everyday job while developing new solutions and ways of doing things. Agile is a flexible, fast and knowledge based bottom-up process. The result that comes us fits the users' needs, not some administrators career. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 - karinnygards karinnygards Dec 7, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014

Digital Delivery is Increasingly the Norm
Digital delivery will one day be the norm, resulting in less face-to-face interaction. The open source movement has yielded thousands of online educational resources and a growing number of educational entrepreneurs and startups whose primary role is to create and deliver digital content. With the rise of free services including TED talks, Wikipedia, the Khan Academy, and many others, schools continue to experience a paradigm shift in which online learning represents the intersection of formal and informal learning. Massive open online courses, for example, can be taken for credit or purely for new skill acquisition or curiosity sake. More and more, teachers are interacting with students through online discussion forums and by sharing video and audio recordings. Furthermore, students are increasingly at the helm of digital content creation, producing videos and other rich media.- lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014: Challenge: Norway's NDLA for Upper secondary Education has risen the question on free online content vs content publishers' licensed material. 18 of 19 counties (Upper secondary school owner) is funding free online content, which means that less of financing content goes back to publishers. Is this a problem for free market principles or simply an adjustment to the liberal sharing values of the internet? Several larger municipalities are currently working on the idea of copying this form of content funding to K-12 in a shared community online, although it is put on hold untill further legal clarifications are done. It is a challenge to ensure that Digital Delivery becomes the norm. It’s important to establish a culture where digital learning resources are just as natural to use as analog learning resources and where digital learning resources are an integrated part in teaching and education.- jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 Agreed! - Sam Sam Dec 3, 2014 - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 ¨¨¨¨I think there is still a strong textbook culture among Our Schools, and still some scepticism or resilience against digital Learning Resources.- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014 - Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Dec 7, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 It is important to ask oneself. Why should digital delivery be the norm, not only establish this as an objective truth. I agree with Øystein that there still is a strong textbook culture, and could it be that the textbook has advantages compared to the digital delivery? Is hypertext always the best way to learn or could it be that strict focus to one subject without interference could be positive in any ways?- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 4, 2014
digital delivery is growing slowly in Sweden. As said, the textbook culture is strong and the publishers are slow in offering products that are digitally appealing. At the same time many school owners try to push their teachers to create their own digital learning materials - as a way to save money. Some of these materials are excellent, but some are not very good.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 It is certainly a huge problem especially when in some cases digital delivery automatically is seen as a way of saving money - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 digital delivery is growing in Denmark, we see more cooperation amongs the schools and the sociaty in offering lessons wich is not face to face oriented. In Denmark we still have a challenge in securing less dropout when we use digital delivery. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014
Why cant we buy computers instead of books? - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 Why do not we just see digital delivery as part of the opportunities that are present. Our pupils are different, and even though there is a growing number of opportunities in the digital, there are still groups of students who are motivated by the not digital. Even in the future.
However, there is an increased use of digital options which are increasingly used in schools, at work and at home. I see it as a natural process in which we must be aware of new opportunities. - stgr stgr Dec 5, 2014 I think it is slow to develop teaching materials for the web, teaching materials that take advantage of all the great web of interactivity, collaboration, gamification, movie, text, compensatory aids and so on. I think it would be unfortunate and unwise ways to use teachers' time for all teachers to do all their own materials and all their textbooks themselves. Nor do I think that the school must cost the same all the time, it's not fair to say that you should buy computers instead of textbooks. - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Dec 7, 2014
Sharing is caring:-) it is important to foster a very strong sharing culture within K12 if the notion of teacher produce digital material should ever become mainstream . That means that school owners have to recognise this kind of work as part of their teachers workload and value it. - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 Teachers are NOT getting more and more time to prepare their lessons, so I think it is unwise to ask all teachers to develop their own teaching materials. Even though you are a good teacher you migth not be good at producing your own teaching material. The Commercial Publishers have employés (most of them former teachers) who are especially interested and talented when it comes to producing teaching and learning materials. Commercial Publishers also have access to pictures, videos, music, sounds, ........in a way that an ordinary teacher cannot have without violating all copyright Laws.
[Jette Risgaard] Online Educa Megatrends From key note session: Cloud Computing and Learning Analytics - morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014

Evolution of Online Learning
Over the past several years, there has been a shift in the perception of online learning to the point where it is seen as a viable alternative to some forms of face-to-face learning. The value that online learning offers is now well understood, with flexibility, ease of access, and the integration of sophisticated multimedia and technologies chief among the list of appeals. Recent developments in business models are upping the ante of innovation in these digital environments, which are now widely considered to be ripe for new ideas, services, and products. While growing steadily, this trend is still a number of years away from its maximum impact. Progress in learning analytics, adaptive learning, and a combination of cutting-edge asynchronous and synchronous tools will continue to advance the state of online learning and keep it compelling, though many of these are still the subjects of experiments and research by online learning providers and education institutions. - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014: Online tools for delivering lessons and real time assessment, like ClassFlow and NearPod, are now carefully tried along with online live e-lectures at some Norwegian University colleges. One of the impacts this may have is to strengthen the lecturer's ability to use instant feedback from online students to re-structure and adjust level on the lecture during the presentation. Simultaniously, using online co-writing tools and video conferencing can actually make the student and lecturer work closer together than would have been the case in a classroom or auditorium on campus. The same tools will tighten the distance between teacher and students on sick leave in K-12, as the student can participate fully from home or hospital, which I expect us to see more and more of during the next three to five years (Similar to what we already see in use in British Columbia, where home schooling are put in system with disruptive learning, due to long distances in part of the State). Using these tools can also, used creatively, make personalized learning easier, especially for gifter students, who in parallell to regular home-class learning can follow classes in particular themes or subjects at a higher level. - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014 In upper secondary education in Norway, we are at the moment discussing how we more actively and strategically can use Virtual Schools both in order to create better outreach, e.g. for adult students, in order to maintain courses With few students and as a tool in Our ongoing PD efforts.- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014 - sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 4, 2014 In higher education in Norway we have seen a tripling of investment in video/blended learning/online learning hardware the past year. UNINETT joint procurement brokers framework for hardware in educational settings, and we see both lecture capture and more use of interactive tools rapidly being deployed. - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 In Danish uper secondary schools we have been having some virtual experiences. I know a cooperation between 4 VET schools in using virtual lessons for ensuring a balanced educational lesson. For securing a huge viarity of virtual schools we need in Denmark to have a virtual strategy and a wellworking helpdesk for ensuring exellent use of virtual schools. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014 On a policy level in Norway virtual learning is discussed as a solutions to needs like Continued Professional Education, narrow subjects, foreign languages and so on. - Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Dec 7, 2014 In Sweden online learning in K12 is still considered an exception, only considered for subject that are very hard to fins teachers to (at every school in the country). Also the favored variant is real time tuition (i.e. video conference) - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014

Expansion of Digital Tests and Exams
In Denmark national (summative) online tests exist and will expand. Online tests. Digital exams (with access to the Internet during the exams) are piloted in a number of schools and subjects and will no doubt spread to other areas and subjects. And this practice will eventually lead the changing of what is taught and the way it is taught. Digital tests and exams in Denmark - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 At the moment there are two groups investigating how to digitise national tests in Sweden, one within the Ministry of Education and another within the National Agency for Education. Sweden will most probably introduce digital tests within a couple of years.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 i.e. national tests in a (limited) number of subjects and in some years, this might also change - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 In Norway there are sumative digital tests and exams on the national level provided by UDIR http://www.udir.no/Vurdering/Eksamen-videregaende/ Use of LMS for formative assessment varies. For higher education there is a national project with 23 universities and university colleges aiming at essay style exams for the first phase. - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014

The Future of Employment and Computerisation
(http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf)
We live in a time where the job market is under a tremendous shift. The students entering school today will meet a radically different working environment and job market than what we see today. Research suggests that about half of the current job market will shift rapidly or dissappear within a 10-20 year period. Jobs in services, administration, finances, transportation etc are very likely to be replaced either by robots, artificial intelligences or computers within this time frame. This will have a profound impact on education and what it delivers. There will be an increased need for the integration of new skills into education. Programming, creative use of IT as a design material, along with human-centered skills will see a great increase in demand. We will most likely have to re-think the notion of education being something that is provided at a single point in life by the state, as an ever shifting and evolving world will require a more rapid shift of competences in the general population. The use of technology in education will have to increase, and shift its focus from being a tool for use in other subject matters, to having an increased role in education as a tool for itself, and as a material for design and development. This will be seen throughout the educational system. Most likely this trend wont be seen from one day to another, but over a 20-year period we will probably be able to see the shift occur. - karinnygards karinnygards Dec 7, 2014 I believe that ICT has a role in schools both by it self and as a tool for use in "other" subjects. It is also important that the development of society almost totally digitalised is a "subject" in it self. - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014

Growing Ubiquity of Social Media
Social media is changing the way people interact, present ideas and information, and judge the quality of content and contributions. More than 1.2 billion people use Facebook regularly according to numbers released in October 2013; a recent report by Business Insider reported 2.7 billion people — almost 40% of the world population — regularly use social media. The top 25 social media platforms worldwide share 6.3 billion accounts among them. Educators, students, alumni, and the general public routinely use social media to share news about scientific and other developments. The impact of these changes in scholarly communication and on the credibility of information remains to be seen, but it is clear that social media has found significant traction in almost every education sector. Relationship and communication between teacher and student is important. So if your students spend a lot of time in social media why not see it as an opportunity to communicate. There are quite a few teachers who use Facebook, Twitter or blogs to stay in touch with students. It also gives teachers a better understanding of what kids lives look like nowadays. Communication should be easily accessible and the software with high usability. Social media services are great at this. We do have e-mail accounts for every student too that was provided by the city. They don't use them. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014 - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 4, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014- helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Dec 7, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 - stefan stefan Dec 7, 2014- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014 Social media are more and more used by teachers to discuss their work, often called "the expanded college". This happens both across the nation and locally.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 Social media is a platform were all can build up their relationship. It is a platform were teachers could interact with students. When this is used for communication between teachers ans students the need for specific rules is clear, and therefore all schools need to have af politic for thees kind of social intaraction. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014 Social Media Education New research in Danish upper secondary schools shows that social media like Facebook is the number one attention diverts from the interaction about educational subjects in the classroom. At the same time international research shows that there is a great potential in using social media in the educational interaction. In this way there is a huge gap between the claimed learning potential and the negative effects that currently appears. This schism can be found in many educational institutions. The Socio Media Education experiment, a project in a Danish upper secondary school has tried to find solutions. The core of this experiment from 2011-2014 was that the teachers did neither meet the students with prohibitions nor with indifference with regard to the use of media. In addition, they have had to facilitate student reflexivity in relation to attention and media use, and they have had to use social media in their teaching, especially Twitter and wiki. See short article in English: http://pure.au.dk/portal/files/54508198/Social_Media_and_Teaching._Taekke_and_Paulsen.pdf Link to a book about the project: http://www.u-p.dk/default.asp?product=278 and Link to the project's website: http://www.smee.dk - imvjet imvjet Nov 18, 2014

Importance of Content Curation
Digital literacy goes beyond teaching students how to assess the quality of data and content; it entails understanding how to assess media-based and other content (such as video, audio, slides, articles, and reports) from disparate sources and select those which are the most germane or useful to the task at hand. When resources are curated effectively, they add more value to each other. For example, a news article detailing a new scientific discovery is enhanced by a video of a physicist showcasing the findings. The video may explore a different facet of the discovery than the article, but the goal is that the content in both will help learners gain new knowledge about a subject. - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014: I.e. Microsoft has tried to incorporate this into already existing tools. One example is the add-in Office Mix in PowerPoint 2013 and in O365, enabling video production with teacher or student appearing while hand-writing Khan Academy look-alike videos presented in slides. This will evidently make shared presentations more valuable for the viewer and enable students making presentations for teacher and class to build in oral explanations and write out i.e. solving algebraic algorithms. - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Dec 2, 2014: Important point. - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014 We know from the ICILS-report that Danish teachers have a mixed view on this: Most of them agree that the internet provides better access to information sources, but a lot of them also see it as a problem that it leads to inappropriate copying. So handling content curation and the appropriate use of content is of great importance. ICILS 2013 - Denmark. As it takes a lot of time and efforts to understand the learning potential of e.g. big digital learning portals many teachers also look for impartial curation of content with respect to pedagogical value in a standardized and understandable way. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 NDLA (National Digital Learning Arena - ndla.no) has element of teacher curating Learning Resources. In each of the subjects represented, mainly Teachers Select the Learning Resources within each subject.- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 I think this is something that would make it easier for a lot of teachers. There are so many digital resources out there and it would make it less time consuming if teachers had a source for curated resources they trusted. - jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014

Increasing Focus on Open Educational Resources
Openness — concepts like open content, open data, and open resources, along with notions of transparency and easy access to data and information — is becoming a value across education. As traditional sources of authority are augmented by downloadable content, however, there is need for more curation and other forms of validation to that can communicate the credibility of a resource. Complicating the landscape in some ways, “open” has become a term often applied in very different contexts. Often mistaken to simply mean “free,” open education advocates are working towards a common vision that defines “open” more broadly — not just free in economic terms, but educational materials that are freely copiable, freely remixable, and free of barriers to access, sharing, and educational use. OER on the Agenda. As sharing is increasingly norm in teachers' practice, the adoption of OER will take off in a steady pace. This development will be fueled by increased awareness of technology as non-neutral and facilitated by meta tagging resources such as The Teacher Spider in Sweden (
http://lararspindeln.se/spindeln/soktjansten-spindeln/the-spider/). Open licensing is a major tool for creating and sharing resources and in this development the different conditions of Creative Commons will be highlighted and realized in educational policy and in publicly funded learning resource production. Motivation in this shift will not be financial, but pedagogical. OER as mainstream will impact teaching and learning since "Open" will allow for remix and re-purposing of resources, leaving teachers with a higher level of authentic learning materials, where students may participate in remixing open textbooks, media etc, and teachers will share in the collective knowledge of teaching which provides them with access to feedback, network and community beyond their local context. Likewise, this domain will prove accessible to students, as they develop their digitally participatory skills. The notion of MOOC is present here. - sara.mortsell sara.mortsell Dec 7, 2014 - ylva.pettersson ylva.pettersson Dec 7, 2014 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Dec 7, 2014 - stefan stefan Dec 7, 2014
But there is still the question of time - time for teachers to be producers in a more systematic way and that issue has to be resolved - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014

Increasing Use of Hybrid Learning Designs
As teachers and students alike become more familiar with and adept at using the Internet, traditional classroom pedagogies increasingly include online learning components, hybrid learning strategies, and increased focus on collaboration within the classroom. Schools that are making use of hybrid learning models are finding that using both the physical and the virtual learning environments to their highest potentials allows teachers to further personalize the learning experience, engage students in a broader variety of ways, and even extend the learning day. Hybrid models, when designed and implemented effectively, enable students to use the school day for group work and project-based activities, while using the network to access readings, videos, and other learning materials on their own time, leveraging the best of both environments. - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014: Have seen teachers perfectly use co-writing tools for students writing their hypothesises before conducting chemical experiments. - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014: a research report (PhD) from University of Oslo: Digital practice in collaboration between contexts -students' (9-13) use, experiences and interpretations of digital technology and the transformator between school and leisure time (Bjørgen, 2014) clearly shows that students' digital skills and abilities are not being exploited in schools, not even close. It tells how Norwegian schools not only prohibits all use of mobile phones, but also YouTube. Teachers are too often concerned about training students in technical and digital skills as such, instead of using already existing skills blended into classroom learning environments. The report also suggests a more active use of mobile technology in schools i.e. to collect data and document learning processes.
http://forskning.no/barn-og-ungdom-skole-og-utdanning-informasjonsteknologi/2014/11/skolen-utnytter-ikke-barnas-digitale#.VG8KDTPcCgk.facebook Comment: Children's experience with digital technology at home raise their expectations of how is should be used in schools, which is a major challenge for many schools and teachers.- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 4, 2014 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Dec 7, 2014

Massive Reinvention of the Personal Computer
Computers as we know them are in the process of a massive reinvention. The computer is smaller, lighter, and better connected than ever before, without the need for wires or bulky peripherals. In many cases, smartphones and other mobile devices are sufficient for basic computing needs, and only specialized tasks require a keyboard, large monitor, and a mouse. Mobiles are connected to an ecosystem of applications supported by cloud computing technologies that can be downloaded and used instantly, for pennies. As the capabilities and interfaces of small computing devices improve, our ideas about when — or whether — a traditional computer is necessary are changing as well. - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014 - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014- tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 This brings the need for developing app for your computer more in play. Microsoft has with their new Windows platform interacted with apps also for mobil platforms. This is just the beginning. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014

New Professions Entering Schools
Traditionally schools have been made up of teachers, some principals, a janitor, and more teachers (and other pedagogs). This is quite natural of course since teaching is what schools been set up to do. When we now focus more on learning, creating an environment that supports learning, and professional development (Sweden is notoriously bad at this) new professions should enter schools. Me myself have a business degree and I work closely with our IT-pedagog who is truly more of a system developer than a pedagog. We are also thinking about hiring an HR expert to focus on professional development and the well-being of our staff because competition for the best teachers is getting more and more obvious in Sweden. All this concerns how school is structured and a greater degree of interaction together with a stronger focus on learning is emerging. Wired like a nervous system and we are creating new routes. We can't expect more of the same to do the job, we need to look at how to do things differently. And for that we need new competencies and visions. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014
I absolutely agree. This is important. But I am not sure it is happening.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014
Many municipalities became fond of hiring headmasters from outside the schoolworld, for some reason people from the armed services e.g. were highly popular for a while. Maybe teachers were considered unruly, and in need of strict leadership. This trend however seems to belong to the past. The majors proved to be lousy at democratic learning environments. But in the political arena, and among the civil servants and researchers and the "learning coaches" we find loads of people from different areas of society - officers, policemen, people who have studied media or political sciences, but damned few teachers! I believe for teaching to really focus on learning we need fewer busybodies without experience from teaching doing the research, teachertraining and governing, and more experts from within the field. - ylva.pettersson ylva.pettersson Dec 6, 2014 - karinnygards karinnygards Dec 7, 2014


Rethinking How Schools Work
There is a focused movement to reinvent the traditional classroom paradigm and rearrange the entire school experience — a trend that is largely being driven by the influence of innovative learning approaches. Methods such as project- and challenge-based learning call for school structures that enable students to move from one learning activity to another more organically, removing the limitations of the traditional bell schedule. Moreover, these novel arrangements encourage renovation of classroom layouts to with the express focus of facilitating more group interaction. Century old practices in which students learn subject by subject while uniformly facing the front of the classroom are perceived by many as an antiquated approach to teaching and learning. The multidisciplinary nature of project-based learning and other contemporary approaches has brought attention to innovative designs of the school atmosphere that link each class and subject matter to each other. As learning becomes more fluid and student-centered, some teachers and administrators believe that schedules should be more flexible to allow opportunities for more authentic learning to take place and ample room for independent study. - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014 ...challenging how we create and conduct exams. - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014Selective vs comprehensive education: "This failure to define a clear purpose has fatally held back progress in understanding how we learn best. For if you can’t agree on a destination, how can you possibly agree on the best route? Instead, what we’re left with is a public discourse permanently afflicted by the curse of binary, oppositional arguments. The either/or positioning isn’t helped by constant political interference, resulting in a series of pendulum swings with every change of administration. Polarized arguments prevent real progress being made: selective vs. comprehensive school systems; instruction-led teaching vs inquiry-led; head vs hand; academic vs vocational; knowledge vs skills. Can you imagine doctors in the 21st century arguing over the use of flu vaccines?" (David Price: What's our visjon for the future of learning / MindShift article, November 2014 - http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/2013/12/whats-our-vision-for-the-future-of-learning/ ) With a new reform of the Danish public schools the rethinking of how schools work has already begun. A longer and more varied school day is one of the key elements in the reform. Reform of the Danish public schools - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 However, regarding teachers use of IT the ICIL analysis points out that the Danish teachers and pupils are still using technology in a rather traditional way to day. But I expect that the future trend will be that technology will change to be an enabler for new ways of teaching where the learning of the individual child is in focus – involving through technology not only the teacher and the pupil, but also other professionals as well as parents.- jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 - morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014 We are seeing some New approaches to how classes are being taught, clear disruptions compared to the old one subject, one lesson, one teacher paradigm- oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014- sven.o.brekke sven.o.brekke Dec 4, 2014 - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014 Use of ICT in innovative ways can change the need for traditional classrooms. I do not however believe new ways of learning simply call for new classroom design. I believe redefining learning calls for leaving the classroom. Open plan schools and the like do not achieve that. Thay simply leave children in new classrooms, maybe bigger and brighter, maybe noisier and easier to disappear in, but still classrooms. My belief is, we need something different. - ylva.pettersson ylva.pettersson Dec 6, 2014 - stefan stefan Dec 7, 2014 We have to think that learning 24/7 is more in Progress and this opens a new way of thinking and designing the classroom. Now its not nessesary to be together in the same classroom for the same educational field. This gives us at change of reframing the classroom to be able to facilitate real differiented learning. Its also opens for the need of rethinking the digital posibilities. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014
We have to change the way we asess the students, we may have to evaluate what they are able to do in an real problem solving process with the recourses in their network more than what thay are able to do on their own. - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 [Jette Risgaard] We have to rethink and redesign the tasks teachers give to students so that the tasks fit for digital students. Sometimes correctness might be asked for (a grammatical task in an English lesson) and at other times collaboration, innovation and creative use of ICT should be valued higher than correctness. [Jette Risgaard]

Rethinking the Roles of Teachers
Teachers are increasingly expected to be adept at a variety of technology-based and other approaches for content delivery, learner support, and assessment; to collaborate with other teachers both inside and outside their schools; to routinely use digital strategies in their work with students; to act as guides and mentors in to promote student-centered learning; and to organize their own work and comply with administrative documentation and reporting requirements. Students, along with their families, add to these expectations through their own use of technology to socialize, organize, and informally learn on a daily basis. The integration of technology into everyday life is causing many educational thought leaders argue that schools should be providing ways for students to continue to engage in learning activities, formal and informal, beyond the traditional school day. As this trend gathers steam, many schools across the world are rethinking the primary responsibilities of teachers. Related to these evolving expectations are changes in the ways teachers engage in their own continuing professional development, much of which involves social media and online tools and resources. While fully online schools are still relatively rare, an increasing number of teachers are using more hybrid and experiential learning exercises, and experimenting with social media and others ways of building learning communities. - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014 - Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Ingunn.Bremnes.Stubdal Dec 7, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 Today – and in the future - the expectations for students’ skills are different from yesterday e.g. 21 century skills. It requires the teachers to assume another role. From a classical teacher to a facilitator who e.g. facilitates project-oriented learning and have an investigative approach. Furthermore IT allows new learning methods and roles of teachers e.g. ongoing evaluation witch allow the students to be more involved in the process. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 The role of the teacher as a walking knowledge hub is gone. Teachers need of course to know their respective subjects but the art of teaching is more important. Sometimes that will be as a lecturer, sometimes facilitator, director, coach, instructor, adult etc. Understanding how to use technology, and counter some technology, will be a key skill for teachers. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014 I'm not sure I entirely agree. If ICT among other things leads to more advanced learning of more advanced material, subject knowledge in teachers will become more important. If the flipped classroom e.g. moves basic presentations out of the classroom, hopefully more advanced discussions will take place in it. When before, I gave a class on the reign of Elizabeth I, I can now give that presentation in a flip and in stead, we will spend class in discussions on how female rule changed the concept of imperium in early modern, protestant England. That does not take less subject knowledge, it takes more. In stead, I believe schools must find more staff for non-teaching aspects of learning. Mentorship, technology, marketing etc should all be performed by people with the right qualifications for those jobs, leaving teachers time to work on bettering learning opportunities. - ylva.pettersson ylva.pettersson Dec 6, 2014 - stefan stefan Dec 7, 2014
Now and in the future all teachers have to rethinking their role in the educational areas. Therefor we need the educations of new teachers and also for old teachers to include the teaching as af 22 Century teacher. We have to secure that all teachers can and will use the students reframing the didactics and use the students as technoligy integrates. Teachers have to be able to use digital pedagogic in their professionel Work. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014 The role of an teacher have always been to motivate and helt the students in their learning process, never to hand out knowledge. That wont change in a fundamental way with new technology either. - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 - helena.kvarnsell helena.kvarnsell Dec 7, 2014
One of the big problems here is that teachers lack the basic skills in order to see the possibilities of ICT and digital media in education, which means that the didactic can not incorporate it in class. Another problem is that constantly comes new opportunities and media, making it diffecult to keep up with the possibilities. Here I think Flipped classroom contains some good options. It is a new educational perception of teaching, but at the same time it is based on known technologies such as video, and the teacher can transform much of their current blackboard teaching to the students, however, it must be rethought when it is represented as learning videos.
It also provides an opportunity for learning will take place where it should be, "by the students" , and teacher's role becomes more like a consultant. - stgr stgr Dec 5, 2014 In Denmark, there are many schools that work Classroom management, which among other things includes the relationships between teacher and students and management of the classroom. Compared to students constantly depending on their digital media such as Smartphones are the major challenges for what happens in the learning environment. The teacher's role here is to be able to handle this, both when the media is involved in the teaching and when they do not.

Rise of Data-Driven Learning and Assessment
There is a growing interest in using new sources of data for personalizing the learning experience and for performance measurement. As learners participate in online activities, they leave an increasingly clear trail of analytics data that can be mined for insights. Learning analytics experiments and demonstration projects are currently examining ways to use that data to modify learning strategies and processes. Dashboards filter this information so that student progress can be monitored in real time. As the field of learning analytics matures, the hope is that this information will enable continual improvement of learning outcomes. / - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014: Need for hybrid data infrastructure based on both Cloud and Grid Computing built into School District infrastructure to secure privacy together with exploiting big data algorithms for personalization. - lars.persen lars.persen Dec 1, 2014: I think we will see Learning Analytics-light models the next 3 years, as developers will use already existing tools to produce big data in a smaller scale, making it possible to push content personalized for students.
The student’s use of the digital learning resources will leave many easily picked traces that may be data to help performance and evaluation of the individual student. The traces that students leave behind can be used to improve learning, to support a more focused organization of teaching and education and to help identifying students who need help. Additionally it enables teachers daily to follow students’ progress. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 I would prefer process-driven or learning with data-supported processes or something. Anyway it's interesting but a big challange will be how to balance highly motivated students possibilities with those who have less motivation. There's an obvious risk that the gap between students will increase when using these tools. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014 There is still lot of potential in Learning Analytics, but I still Wonder how we can overcome Barriers to the mainstreaming of Learning analytics. - oysteinjohannessen oysteinjohannessen Dec 4, 2014
In Norway the need for work on learning analytics was acknowledged with 5 million in the government budget for 2015, aiming to set up a national center for learning analytics. This is in compliance with the recommendations from the national MOOC commission http://www.regjeringen.no/pages/38804804/PDFS/NOU201420140005000EN_PDFS.pdf - ingrid.melve ingrid.melve Dec 5, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 The key is not the datadriven automated personalization but he possibility to create tools that gives student feedback while working and the teacher tools to better support the learning process - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 Tradition: assessment has been intended to capture pupils achievements in a delimited subject area, at a certain time. Existing models of assessment are typically at odds with: high-level skills, knowledge, attitudes, self directed learning and collaborative learning. ICT offer many opportunities for supporting assessment formats that can capture complex skills and competences that are otherwise difficult to assess.- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 8, 2014

Shift from Students as Consumers to Students as Creators
A shift is taking place in the focus of pedagogical practice on university campuses all over the world as students in across a wide variety of disciplines are learning by making and creating rather than from the simple consumption of content. Creativity, as illustrated by the growth of user-generated videos, maker communities, and crowdfunded projects in the past couple years, is increasingly the means for active, hands-on learning. We expect such a shift to have an impact on the learners’ academic achievement, engagement and motivation. Research in relation to this is taking place at Danish demonstration schools. The student as creator is closely related to other trends like: Shift to Deep Learning Approaches and Rethinking the Roles of the Teachers. Danish demonstrations schools. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014
Students have always been creators, it's just that they didn't always get credit for it. At least in Sweden teachers have been using students' creativity to stimulate learning for a long time. New technology will give us new options though. Our project http://bookis.se is one example of how to stimulate this. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014The Danish project FabLab@SCHOOLdk, which is a continuation of the MIT-project FabLab@School, aims to enable a makerculture at school. The Swedish project Makerspace i skolan will create and test a concept for the development of makerspace that can be used in Swedish schools. - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014
I agree with Martin - this has been the case in Sweden for a long time.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014
I Denmark we have for at least the last 3-4 years been more understandable in crediting the creation from our students. This is also one area that we in our curriculum could be more upen for giving students credits for their knowledge. We could easily Work in creating a accreditation model for giving students credits as creators. - tt.hansenberg tt.hansenberg Dec 7, 2014
I think you have to have both. - stefan.reppe stefan.reppe Dec 7, 2014 Asking students to produce rather than to reproduce learning is also asking for a higher understanding. Instead of learning something by Heart you are asking students to really understand which is much more valuable.
Students as producers of digital artifacts. When we have focus on the student role as a producer, we often isolate it to digital communication as the product, but most of the items we are using are digital designed, manufactured and often distributed. The student needs knowledge, skills and competencies for producing digital artifacts as special defined subject. [Editor's Note: Moved from RQ2.]

Shift to Deep Learning Approaches
There is a new emphasis in the classroom on deeper learning approaches, defined by the Alliance for Excellent Education as the delivery of rich core content to students in innovative ways that allow them to learn and then apply what they have learned. Project-based Learning, Problem-Based Learning, Inquiry-Based Learning, Challenge-Based Learning and similar methods foster more active learning experiences, both inside and outside the classroom. As technologies such as tablets and smartphones are more readily accepted in schools, educators are leveraging these tools, which students already use, to connect the curriculum with real life applications. These active learning approaches are decidedly more student-centered, allowing learners to take control of how they engage with a subject and to brainstorm and implement solutions to pressing local and global problems. The hope is that if learners can connect the course material with their own lives and their surrounding communities, then they will become more excited to learn and immerse themselves in the subject matter. / - lars.persen lars.persen Nov 28, 2014: Jens Rasmussen, professor, Pedagogy at University of Århus, Denmark blogs on his work in the Norwegian Ludvigsen Governmental advisory board, says that "the teacher will have to become more of a fascilitator of structured Learning environments, applying a variety of learning methods and styles, securing that New learning is connected to prior knowledge and skiills already adapted by the students." Feedback from teachers has to be structural and point out how the students can use what they have learned in new and more challenging situations, which is a bit of a mind shift to traditional problem solving. Jens Rasmussen from the Advisory Board Blog "Deep learning" has some connection with "Teacher as facilitator", but they are not the same thing, and deserve two separate headlines. For myself, I am more a fan of "Deep learning" than of "Teacher as facilitator". - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Dec 2, 2014- jostein.kvisteroy jostein.kvisteroy Dec 7, 2014 Computers and tablets (or what it will be in the future) will make this approach available which is great. A non-analog environment will speed up processes in which the students learn and improve the quality of their work. Teachers who see the potential in this will make better use of technology. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014 - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014 ICT supported feedback and forward One of the most powerful actions for enhancing the students learning is enhanced feedback and feed forward. How can a range of ict tools be used for self, peer and teacher driven rhetorical reflection? How can we make changes in the teachers practice for using synchronous and asynchronous tools? From the Norwegian report on future school (Ludvigsen utvalget)- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014:A broad concept of competence involves solving problems and dealing with challenges in different contexts, including cognitive, practical, social and emotional aspects of pupils’ learning. –– Research on learning shows that –– deep learning, as opposed to surface learning, has a long-term impact on pupils’ development within and across disciplines, enabling good progression in pupils’ learning efforts, –– pupils’ skills are developed through the interaction of academic, social and emotional aspects of learning, and social and emotional learning can contribute positively to the pupils’ learning outcomes in school, –– there is a clear relationship between pupils’ social and emotional competences and how they succeed later in life, and that –– it is important.- morten.soby morten.soby Dec 7, 2014


Added as a New Trend from RQ2


Cognitive Load Theory
The cognitive load theory is not a technology, but the way a technological learning resource will be addressed in the student's brain, here mainly the working memory. Do we e.g. a video containing too much information can cause overload of the student. It may also be information noise, showing something on a video that does not match up with what is being said. The cognitive load theory is not new, but I think it contains some important parameters which should be incorporated when working with learning through the various technologies. Link: http://www.learning-theories.com/cognitive-load-theory-of-multimedia-learning-sweller.html and http://steinhardtapps.es.its.nyu.edu/create/courses/2174/reading/Bruenken_Plass_Leutner_EP.pdf
[[uWhen we have focus on the student role as a producer, we often isolate it to digital communication as the product, but most of the items we are using are digital designed, manufactured and often distributed. The student needs knowledge, skills and competencies for producing digital artifacts as special defined subject. ser:stgr|1417772760]] [Editor's Note: This is not a technology and reads like a trend, therefore it is being moved to RQ3.]

Computer Science in National Curriculum
Computer Science and Coding are now compulsory subjects within the UK Curriculum for all ages. Computer Science has become a highly employable discipline, is hugely in demand across sectors and there is a shortage of skills in this field in the marketplace. Important to look at the experience coming from the UK - it seems obvious to discuss this in more details in Scandinavia. Programs like KODU and Project Spark are free easy to use programming tool, that make coding fun. The global Hour of Code initiative focuses on the importance on highlighting coding within and outside education. - Kirsten.Panton Kirsten.Panton Dec 7, 2014- vibeke.klovstad vibeke.klovstad Dec 7, 2014 [Editor's Note: This reads more like a trend and will be added to RQ3]

New Kinds of Fast Interaction
Digital exercises and simulations are giving students quick response in new interactive ways. Such quick response to the learners is good for learning. Examples include spell checkers (word by word), grammar checkers (sentence by sentence), simulations, interactive exercises, DragonBox (operation by operation, equations) and Kikora (line by line, math). - Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Dec 2, 2014 (- Ellef.fange.gjelstad Ellef.fange.gjelstad Dec 2, 2014 has commercial interests in Kikora) [Editor's Note: This reads more like a trend and we are adding it to RQ3.]

Synthetic Biology and DIY Biology - ch.tii ch.tii Dec 6, 2014
Over the past decade biology and ICT have come to grow together in an ever more rapid speed. Over the past two to three years technology has decreased in cost exponentially, which enables for complex work in synthetic biology and DIY Bio contexts to enter the formal educational school system. Here computerisation, interaction design, biology and engineering come together in new and novel ways, and the field is thriving at the moment. Schools engage in contexts such as IGEM (
http://igem.org/Main_Page), public DIY bio labs open up (http://www.openscience.or.at/#!/vol?) and people form clubs and organisations (http://bionyfiken.se/). The field of DIY Bio is just about where computers where in the mid 1970s, with the difference of exponential growth on a larger scale. Here both primary and secondary education will be subject to interruption as this field, in combination with the quantified self movement, will take its foothold. [Editor's Note: This reads more like a trend and we are adding it to RQ3.]


Combined with Existing Technology Topics in RQ1


IOT - the Internet Of Things
- lars.persen lars.persen Dec 3, 2014: Forbes predict IOT devices to tripple from 2014 to 2020, up in selling by 14% already from 2014 to 2015 to a market value of 1,7 trillion dollars, exceeding 3 trillion dollars in 2020. This is supporter by a ABI Research prediction for 30 billioner IOT devices being in use in 2020. Much of the acceleration of IOT use is happening in healthcare and agriculture, but this is also a growing part of educational technology. Some of the IOT adaption in schools will come in security and efficiency, but I expect us to see IOT devices or personalized IOT technology in two areas of learning within 2020: a) technology helping students with special needs; font size adaption, programmed ADL training devices and devices to help students with hearing disabilities b) In mobile learning- IOT to make homework more effective with students through IOT having full-time access to school's learning resources. [Editor's Note: There is already an existing RQ1 topic for the Internet of Things, so we are moving this feedback to RQ1.]

Combined with Existing Challenges in RQ4


Growth of School Incubators
A colleague of ours (sounds almost mafia style), Per Falk (don't think he's here but he should be), launched this idea which we are kind of hooked on. Having an incubator that develops a pedagogical solutions would be a great way to make sure technology fits the needs of the teachers and students. We're seeing a lot of services and purchases being made that badly fits our special environment. In a way I do think we're our own little incubator too. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014
Per and I (Carl Heath) have been discussing this at length. The idea is to enable staff within the educational system to innovate at an increased rate, and do this through a participatory process of co-creation where there is a lot of agency and freedom for the innovating actor. A system for designing freedom within an otherwise relatively contained environment. - karinnygards karinnygards Dec 7, 2014 [Editor's Note: This fits in well with existing challenge in RQ4 - Scaling Teaching Innovation, so we are moving it there.]

Sharing Digital Learning Resources and Innovative Teaching Practices
Technology makes knowledge sharing in schools and among teachers easier e.g. sharing digital learning resources, innovative teaching practices, learning courses, good examples etc. Hopefully the knowledge sharing will increase in the next years. - jakob.harder jakob.harder Dec 2, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 I'm seeing this happen quite a lot at our school but we want more. We're looking at a change in practice and culture which will improve the effect of our teachers. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 3, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 Researchers and teacher educators at Uppsala University, have recently initiated a service - Acedu - that collect, analyze, evaluate and share good examples of teaching at all levels. - stefan stefan Dec 3, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 We're creating a visibly similiar but still very different kind of beast than Acedu with our Looper project. It's focused on professional development through training by sharing video documented parts of lessons. Based on Timperley, Williams, Teitel etc. it uses cyclic movement to gradually and continuously improve the teachers actions in the classroom. It's in first stage prototyping now so we can't show you anything unfortunately. - martin.claesson martin.claesson Dec 4, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 This is already in practice but more as a bottom-up activity than as institutionalised policies. Many teachers share and learn from each other although their principals might not be aware it is happening.- jan.hylen jan.hylen Dec 5, 2014 - peter.karlberg peter.karlberg Dec 7, 2014 [Editor's Note: This fits in well with RQ4 Challenge: Scaling Teaching Innovation. We are moving it there.]